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La Biosécurité

Synthèse de la Stratégie Nationale sur la Biosécurité

Première Partie : Synthèse bibliographique

L’évaluation de l’état des biotechnologies en Tunisie peut se résumer de la manière suivante :

Au niveau de la recherche :

La plupart des recherches sont encore au stade du laboratoire :
Points forts :

  • Un grand nombre de laboratoires développent des recherches en biotechnologie traitant des problématiques nationales à caractère prioritaire ;
  • Les chercheurs tunisiens disposent d’un savoir faire indéniable.

Points faibles :

  • Nombre très faible des chercheurs maitrisant les techniques de contrôle des OGM ;
  • Les normes de sécurité exigées par la manipulation d’OGM au niveau des bâtiments, des serres et des équipements sont rarement respectées ;
  • Manque de responsables chargés de biosécurité.

Au niveau du dispositif de biosécurité :

Un vide juridique ;

  • L’organisation et la structuration des différents services pouvant s’impliquer dans la chaine de contrôle des OGM est totalement absente ;
  • Une faible capacité scientifique et technique.

Deuxième partie : Les orientations stratégiques

Les orientations stratégiques proposées comprennent trois volets :

  • Orientations politiques ;
  • Orientations juridiques et institutionnelles ;
  • Orientations de renforcement des capacités.
Orientations politiques (Principe de précautionEntreprendre des actions de protection contre des nuisances possibles et probables contre l'environnement sans même avoir des confirmations scientifiques de la gravité de ces nuisances)
Une approche globale, équilibrée et cohérente Cette approche devrait prendre en considération des exigences de précaution, économiques et sociales. Elle devrait aussi nous permettre de se positionner en tant que consommateur, producteur ou les deux à la fois.
Une approche prospective et progressive Prendre en considération l’évolution de la situation mondiale permettant une démarche progressive (recherche, capacité matérielle et situation économique)
Intégration régionale et internationale * Respecte les réglementations et normes internationales ; * Favorise notre intégration dans les espaces économiques ; * Ouverte et ambitieuse
Coopération et partenariat * Recherche scientifique ; * Mise en place de dispositif de contrôle, d’évaluation des risques et de suivi des OGM ; * Echange d’informations
Démarche participative et consensus national * Engager le maximum d’acteurs nationaux ; * Instauration d’un dispositif participatif de prise de décision et d’un dispositif interactif d’information et de sensibilisation
Orientations en matière de renforcement des capacités
Précaution basée sur le contrôle a priori Système de double autorisation : * Agrément préalable octroyé par le Ministre de l’environnement ; * Autorisation octroyée par le ministre chargé du secteur selon le type d’utilisation Nécessité de plans d’interventions au cas par cas
Transparence * Au niveau de circulation de l’information ; * Etiquetage et traçabilité.
Vigilance continue et de contrôle spécifique * Respect des obligations et des procédures légales et réglementaires et l’imposition d’une surveillance continue Création d’un comité de biovigilance
Reconnaissance internationale de notre dispositif national de contrôle et d’évaluation des risques * Mettre en place des laboratoires accrédités approuvés par le Ministre de l’environnement et accrédités par le conseil national d’accréditation Création d’un réseau de laboratoires accrédités
Séparation des autorités * Séparation entre les responsabilités décisionnelles et les compétences de consultation scientifique ; * Séparation entre les compétences décisionnelles et celles du contrôle ; * Séparation entre les responsabilités de production, de commercialisation, de recherche et de contrôle.
Responsabilisation * Concevoir un système d’action prévenant tout risque de contamination * Instaurer un système de réparation des dommages occasionnés. Création d’un fond d’indemnisation regroupant les cultivateurs d’OGM à l’instar du FIPOL

Orientations en matière de renforcement des capacités

  • Instaurer une politique nationale de biosécurité en harmonie avec la réglementation internationale et régionale ;
  • Formation des ressources humaines ;
  • Information et sensibilisation employant des méthodes et des outils performants et adaptés ;
  • Développer une coopération internationale active et efficace en matière de recherche.

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